Baboon syndrome is a type of allergic contact dermatitis which occurs after systemic exposure to a substance via injection, ingestion or inhalation. It occurs after the patient had already been exposed to the substance through skin contact.

What causes Baboon syndrome
Initially patients come in contact with the causative agent through skin. During the initial skin contact with the agent, there may not be any clinical signs and symptoms. Baboon syndrome occurs after secondary exposure to same agents through oral, ingestion or any other method. This usually occurs as a hypersensitivity reaction to mercury, nickel, ampicillin and amoxicillin.

Symptoms and signs of Baboon syndrome
As name suggest, rash usually appears on buttocks which resembles the baboon’s buttock. Other common areas are upper inner thigh and armpits. It is not clear why rash usually occurs on these particular areas. The rashes are red, well-defined, symmetrical and commonly seen on buttocks and other intertriginous folds like armpit and upper inner thigh. There may not be any systemic symptoms.

Tests for Baboon syndrome
If the causative agent is known, no tests may be required. If some causative agent is suspected patch tests may be done to confirm or an oral challenge to the suspected agent may be given.

Treatment of Baboon Syndrome

The initial step in treatment is to avoid the causative agent immediately and in the future. If the rash is itchy and painful, topical steroids and anti-itch medications may be helpful. Baboon syndrome is a harmless condition.