We have already known the fact about cigarette smoking and its association between lung cancer, heart disease and many other systemic diseases. But people may not be aware of smoking and its association with several skin conditions like premature aging of skin, wrinkle, and delayed would healing. Besides, several other skin disorders like psoriasis, skin cancer, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, hidradenitis suppurativa and many other oral and vascular diseases are also linked to cigarette smoking. In this article we’ll review some of those skin conditions and disease which are either influenced or are associated with smoking.
Premature Skin Aging and Wrinkles:
Several studies have shown that cigarette smoking promotes premature skin aging and skin wrinkles. These conditions tends to occur more likely in smokers than non smokers, research suggest. The exact mechanism by which smoking can cause premature aging and wrinkling is not clear. But they believe the following may be the likely mechanism:
- Reduction in the blood supply to the skin due to the vasoconstrictive effects of nicotine in cigarette.
- Decreased collagen synthesis due to reduction in blood supply.
- Changes in the elastic fibres of the skin.
- Chronic exposure to heat from the cigarette smoking resulting in burning of the skin.
- Reduction in Vitamin A and moisture of the skin.
- Pro-oxidant effects of smoking.
Poor Wound Healing
It has been shown from different research and studies that smoking has a harmful effect on would healing. Smoking can delays wound healing in any skin injuries. It also increase the risk of wound infection. The exact mechanism may not be unclear but the reason are the same:
- Lack of oxygen due to vasoconstriction property of nicotine.
- Decreased collagen synthesis
- Increased blood viscosity and platelet aggregation.
All of these above mentioned factors might contribute to poor would healing.
Smoking and Skin Cancer
Compared to non-smoker, smokers have twice the risk of developing skin cancers like squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The association between smoking and the risk of squamous cell carcinoma have been well documented in several studies. The risk may increase with duration and number of cigarette per day. There is also a high risk is of oral cancer. It is said that 75% of Oral cancer occurs in smokers. The risk might even be higher with smokers who consume excess alcohol. Oral leukoplakia often described as a pre-cancer lesion also occurs much more commonly in smokers. In some few cases it may undergo malignant changes.
Smoking and Psoriasis
Several studies have found that risk of psoriasis increases with smokers. Psoriasis may be severe and extensive in patients those who smoke. It may be due to immunosuppressive effects of smoking. Palmoplantar pustulosis, a localized form of psoriasis tends to occur more in smokers than non smokers.
Hidradenitis suppurativa, also know as Acne inverse tends to occur more commonly in smokers. It is considered severe form of acne affecting the area of sweat glands and hair follicles, usually in breasts, underarms, groin, thighs and buttocks. Although exact mechanism poorly understood, it is thought that smoking alters sweat gland activity, causes overproduction of acetylcholine in the hair follicle causing blockage of hair follicle and thus promoting poor healing.
Discoid Lupus Erythematosus
Recent studies have linked cigarette smoking and the risk of developing Discoid lupus erythematosus . Cigarette smoking have also linked with decrease effectiveness of therapy in discoid lupus erythematosus.
Other Various Skin conditions that are linked to Cigarette Smoking:
Premature graying of hair.
Discoloration of distal hair of mustache often called as Smoker’s mustache.
Discoloration of fingers and nails of hands.
Oral lesions like oral candidiasis, oral lichen planus.
Black hairy tongue and hairy leukoplakia.
Acute necrotizing uncreative gingivitis.